Zataria Multiflora

Zataria multifloraConstituents of Zataria multiflora The major components of Zataria multiflora  essential oil in different regions are summarized in Table 1. Fifty-six compounds were identified in Zataria multiflora  essential oil, of which the major constituents are thymol, carvacrol, linalool, and p-cymene. The main components of Zataria multiflora  essential oil from the north area of Iran were thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene and α-pinene, representing 80.19% of the total oil. This is consistent with the results of other analyses of Zataria multiflora  essential oils, such as EOs obtained from the Shiraz city (collected in May 2010), from Eghlid (Fars province, collected in 2014), or Noor Abad (Fars province, collected in 2010). Thymol was also the main constituent of Zataria multiflora  EO collected in mid-May 2009 in the provinces of Isfahan and Bushehr, alongside with c-terpinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and linalool.Table 1. The major components of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil in different regions

Regions Major compounds
Khorasan province Thymol (42.46%), carvacrol (16.85%), p-cymene (10.62%), γ-terpinene (7.26%), and α-pinene (3.00%)
Tehran province Thymol (44.6%), λ-terpinene (21.5%), p-cymene (13.7%), carvacrol (2.35%), and β-caryophyllene (2.20%)
Fars province
Shiraz city Carvacrol (71.12%), λ-terpinene (7.34), and eucaliptol (3.37)
Shiraz city Thymol (61.8%), carvacrol (10.5%), p-cymene (7.5%), and γ-terpinene (4.4%)
Eghlid Thymol (26.32%), carvacrol (25. 51%), PARA-cymene (8.86%), γ-terpinene (7.93%), and linalool (2.08%)
Noor Abad Thymol (30.72%), carvacrol (29.95%), PARA-Cymene (11.38), and γ-terpinene (8.86)
Farashband Thymol (46.61%), carvacrol (17.26%), p-cymene (11.51%), γ-terpinene (4.01%), trans-caryophyllene (2.91%), and α-pinene (2.12%).
Firoozabad Thymol (37.59%), carvacrol (33.65%); PARAcymene (7.72%), γ-terpinene (3.88%), and β-caryophyllene (2.06%)
Isfahan province
Najafabad Thymol (64.87%), c-terpinene (9.11%), p-cymene (5.73%), carvacrol (4.65%), and trans-caryophyllene (2.91%).
Kashan Carvacrol (61.29%), thymol (25.18%), linalool (1.96%), and p-cymene (1.90%)
Yazd city Thymol (40.94%), carvacrol (22.39%), p-cymene (7.73%), and c-terpinene (5.43%).
Lorestan province (Poldokhtar city) Thymol (27.05%), p-cymene (9.49%), borneol (7.1%), cis-sabinene hydrate (6.12%), linalool (5.63%), 1,8-cineole (4.28%), c-terpinene (3.96%), terpinene-4-ol (3.72%), spathulenol (2.82%), camphor (2.74%), and carvacrol (2.7%)
Hormozgan province (Hajiabad) Thymol (47.46%), p-cymene (13.16%), carvacrol (9.64%), and linalool (7.92%).


Anti-inflammatory effects of Zataria multiflora Anti-inflammatory effects of Zataria multiflora  and its constituents are summarized in Table 2. The effect of Zataria multiflora  on lung inflammation and cough due to colds was mentioned in traditional medicine . The plant hydroethanolic extract (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/mL) decreased total WBC, neutrophils, and eosinophils counts in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of hydroethanol extract of Zataria multiflora  on tracheal responsiveness and emphysema of guinea-pig model of COPD were also reported. In addition, Zataria multiflora  showed protective effects on total and differential WBC in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as on lung pathology, serum levels of PLA2, total protein, and histamine of sensitized guinea-pigs. These results indicate potential therapeutic effects of Zataria multiflora  on respiratory systems associated with lung inflammation such as asthma and COPD.Table 2. Anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of Zataria multiflora and its constituents

Extract and constituents Doses Model of study Effects
Aqueous-ethanolic 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/mL, p.o. Guinea-pig model of COPD Improvement of IL-8 level, total WBC number, and lymphocytes percentage
0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/mL Guinea-pig model of COPD Improvement of tracheal responsiveness and emphysema
0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/mL, p.o. Guinea-pig model of asthma Reduction in TR to methacholine and OA, serum levels of NO, nitrite, and PLA2
0.2, 0.8, and 1.4 g/kg, i.p. Albino mice model of paw inflammation Inhibitory activities against acute inflammation
0.2, 0.8, and 1.4 g/kg, i.p. Rat model of paw inflammation Inhibitory activities against chronic inflammation
Aqueous-methanolic 400, 600, and 900 ppm in drinking water Albino mice model of bowel inflammation Reduction the score of macroscopic and microscopic characters acetic acid-treated group
Aqueous-ethanolic 500 and 900 and essential oil 0.3 mL/kg, i.p. Wistar rats model of paw inflammation Anti-inflammatory effects
Carvacrol 40, 80, and 160 μg/mL Guinea-pig model of asthma Improvement of TR, serum level of NO and nitrite, and total and differential WBC
40, 80, and 160 μg/mL Guinea-pig model of asthma Anti-inflammatory effects similar to dexamethasone.
50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. Swiss mice model of paw inflammation Reduction in IL-1β and prostanoids
60, 120, and 240 μg/mL Guinea-pig model of COPD Improvement of TR and emphysema
0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 90 μg/mL, o.p. Wistar rats model of ear edema Inhibition of leukocyte migration and reduction in edema formation
50 or 100 mg/kg; i.p. Swiss mice model of pleurisy and paw edema Inhibition of the edema, TNF-α, and the recruitment of leukocytes
1, 10, and 100 μg/mL Murine peritoneal macrophages (in vitro) Reduction in the nitrite production
100, 200, or 400 μm U937 cells Suppression of LPS-induced COX-2
100 μg/cm2 Mice model of ear edema Reduction in topical edema
50 mg/kg, o.p Fischer 344 Rats model of colitis Suppression of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and IL-1β
Thymol 10, 20 μg/mL HNC stimulated by FMLP Inhibition of elastase releasing
0.2 microm In vitro Inhibition of COX-1
50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL In vitro (PHA)-SPBL Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation
1.5, 15, and 150 μg/mL Leukocytes cells stimulated by FMLP Chemoattractant potent
400 mg/kg Wistar rats model of ear edema Reduction in the inflammatory exudates
10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, i.p. Rats wound model Reduction in edema, leukocyte influx, inhibition of MPO, and improvement of granulation reaction
Linalool 50 or 200 mg/kg, i.p. Mice model of paw edema Reduction in CFA-induced hypersensitivity and paw edema in mice
(25 mg/kg, a.s.) Rats model of edema Inhibition of edema
40, 80, and 120 μg/mL RAW 264.7 cells Inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, phosphorylation of IκBα, p38, c-Jun terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase
25 mg/kg, i.p. Mice model of acute lung injury Reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, lung histopathological changes, total WBC, neutrophils, and macrophages in BALF
γ-terpinene 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, p.o. Swiss mice model of paw edema Reduction in PGE2 and histamine-induced paw edema
25 mg/kg, p.o. Swiss mice model of peritonitis model Reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α production
25 mg/kg, p.o. Swiss mice model of lung inflammation Reduction in neutrophil migration as well as PMN cells migration to the BAL
0.03–6 mg/paw Rats model of paw edema Inhibition of edema formation only in 6 mg/paw
p-cymene 1250 ppm Mice model of colitis Reduction in IL-6 but not suppressing of IL-1β
0.2% and 0.1% Mice model of colitis Reduction in IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines
5000 ppm Mice model of colitis Inhibition of total mRNA IL-1β expression but do not affect IL-6 expression
50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; p.o. Rats model of paw edema Inhibitory activity on edema formation
50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; p.o. Mice model of abdominal writhes Inhibitory effect on abdominal writhes and leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity
Zataria multiflora Boiss

Traditional uses

ZM is extensively used as a flavor ingredient in a wide variety of foods. It has a long history of medicinal uses in its native regions. This plant has several traditional uses (via infusion, decoction or vapor) including as a carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, antiseptic, vermifuge, anesthetic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, antidiarrheal and analgesic (Iranian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2002). Additionally, ZM has been commonly used as an antiseptic.One  of  the ways  to  resist  bacteria is  using  herbs  instead of  antibiotics  and  one of  them  is  the thyme  of  Shiraz.The dry leaves of it are used in the food products as retentive and flavour which constrains the innate security and prevents from the progress of some microorganisms like bacteria and fungus.Using natural flavours as antibacterial combinations is a good solution to control pathogenic bacteria and increasing the time of processed foods durability and causes the hygienic dangers and economic damages to increase which are due the progress of Microorganism cause of the nutritional sources.This herb is used as the flavour in lots of Iranian foods and is antioxidant, antibacterial and disinfectant. This herb is made from the tree and is one of the branches of mints and is traditionally used as the flavour in foods. Thymol  is  one  of  the  important  combinations  of  the  oxide  monoterpene  and  is  antibacterial  and antifungal and  avoids  mycotoxins  production which  is  found in  the  essence  of thyme  and  lots of  other  herbs..Antioxidant effects of Zataria multifloraZataria multiflora has high amounts of phenolic monoterpenes as carvacrol and thymol which showed potent antioxidant activities. Antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activities of Zataria multiflora  and its constituents have been reported in several studies which show that this plant can be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for traditional and medicinal uses. 


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.